ucsdhealthsciences:

A Moveable Yeast: modeling shows proteins never sit still

Our body’s proteins – encoded by DNA to do the hard work of building and operating our bodies – are forever on the move. Literally, according to new findings reported by Trey Ideker, PhD, chief of the Division of Genetics in the UC San Diego School of Medicine, and colleagues in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Hemoglobin protein molecules, for example, continuously transit through our blood vessels while other proteins you’ve never heard of bustle about inside cells as they grow, develop, respond to stimuli and succumb to disease.

To better understand the role of proteins in biological systems, Ideker and colleagues developed a computer model that can predict a protein’s intracellular wanderings in response to a variety of stress conditions.

To date, the model has been used to predict the effects of 18 different DNA-damaging stress conditions on the sub-cellular locations and molecular functions of more than 5,800 proteins produced by yeasts. They found, for example, that yeast proteins could move from mitochondria to the cell nucleus and from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus.

Though the model debut involved yeasts, researchers said the coding can be adapted to study changes in protein locations for any biological system in which gene expression sequences have been identified, including stem cell differentiation and drug response in humans.

Image courtesy of Material Mavens

ucsdhealthsciences:

A Moveable Yeast: modeling shows proteins never sit still

Our body’s proteins – encoded by DNA to do the hard work of building and operating our bodies – are forever on the move. Literally, according to new findings reported by Trey Ideker, PhD, chief of the Division of Genetics in the UC San Diego School of Medicine, and colleagues in a recent issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

Hemoglobin protein molecules, for example, continuously transit through our blood vessels while other proteins you’ve never heard of bustle about inside cells as they grow, develop, respond to stimuli and succumb to disease.

To better understand the role of proteins in biological systems, Ideker and colleagues developed a computer model that can predict a protein’s intracellular wanderings in response to a variety of stress conditions.

To date, the model has been used to predict the effects of 18 different DNA-damaging stress conditions on the sub-cellular locations and molecular functions of more than 5,800 proteins produced by yeasts. They found, for example, that yeast proteins could move from mitochondria to the cell nucleus and from the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi apparatus.

Though the model debut involved yeasts, researchers said the coding can be adapted to study changes in protein locations for any biological system in which gene expression sequences have been identified, including stem cell differentiation and drug response in humans.

Image courtesy of Material Mavens

If our angle is somewhere between 90° and 180°, that means that angle/2 is somewhere between 45° and 90°

Looking at the graph of the cosine function helps with this:

45° translates into π/4 (radians)
90° translates into π/2
180° translates into π

In the following picture the interval for our angel is orange, the interval for angle/2 blue:

As you can see the cosine-value for the blue interval is always positive, so there you go!

- Frauke

If our angle is somewhere between 90° and 180°, that means that angle/2 is somewhere between 45° and 90°

Looking at the graph of the cosine function helps with this:

45° translates into π/4 (radians)
90° translates into π/2
180° translates into π

In the following picture the interval for our angel is orange, the interval for angle/2 blue:

As you can see the cosine-value for the blue interval is always positive, so there you go!

- Frauke

I found this type of mathematics most mind-blowing. It has greatly improved the quality of my life. I highly recommend it. Find more at: http://ift.tt/13o3g8R

I found this type of mathematics most mind-blowing. It has greatly improved the quality of my life. I highly recommend it. Find more at: http://ift.tt/13o3g8R

s-c-i-guy:

Cells lining the blood vessel walls

The structure of the endothelium, the thin layer of cells that line our arteries and veins, is visible here. The endothelium is like a gatekeeper, controlling the movement of materials into and out of the bloodstream. Endothelial cells are held tightly together by specialized proteins that function like strong ropes (red) and others that act like cement (blue).

Image courtesy of Christopher V. Carman and Roberta Martinelli, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Source

s-c-i-guy:

Cells lining the blood vessel walls

The structure of the endothelium, the thin layer of cells that line our arteries and veins, is visible here. The endothelium is like a gatekeeper, controlling the movement of materials into and out of the bloodstream. Endothelial cells are held tightly together by specialized proteins that function like strong ropes (red) and others that act like cement (blue).

Image courtesy of Christopher V. Carman and Roberta Martinelli, Harvard Medical School, Boston.

Source

Photo

Photo

spaceplasma:

Microwave Induced Plasma

This coaxial microwave plasma source (MPS) generates plasma without using a magnetic field. It works like an inverse luminescent tube excited by microwaves. The coaxial microwave plasma generator consists of a copper rod (antenna) as inner conductor surrounded by quartz tube filled with argon gas, the plasma is the outer conductor. The inside of the tube is at atmospheric pressure whereas the outside is at low pressure. The plasma formed around the quartz tube acts as an outer conductor in such a way that a spatially extended surface wave is created, just in an equivalent (‘inverse’) situation to that found in the Surfatron source (where the plasma is inside the tube instead of outside).

The microwave with a frequency of 2.45 GHz generated by two magnetrons is fed into the copper rods at both ends. On the outside of the tube, in the low pressure, the microwave fields ignite the plasma. The plasma represents a conductive medium so by increasing microwave power the plasma grows from both ends along the tube, and a homogeneous plasma is formed. The high power microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure leads to the formation of filamentary structures. These striations or string-like structures, also known as birkeland currents, are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball, the aurora,lightning,electric arcs, solar flares, and even supernova remnants.

spaceplasma:

Microwave Induced Plasma

This coaxial microwave plasma source (MPS) generates plasma without using a magnetic field. It works like an inverse luminescent tube excited by microwaves. The coaxial microwave plasma generator consists of a copper rod (antenna) as inner conductor surrounded by quartz tube filled with argon gas, the plasma is the outer conductor. The inside of the tube is at atmospheric pressure whereas the outside is at low pressure. The plasma formed around the quartz tube acts as an outer conductor in such a way that a spatially extended surface wave is created, just in an equivalent (‘inverse’) situation to that found in the Surfatron source (where the plasma is inside the tube instead of outside).

The microwave with a frequency of 2.45 GHz generated by two magnetrons is fed into the copper rods at both ends. On the outside of the tube, in the low pressure, the microwave fields ignite the plasma. The plasma represents a conductive medium so by increasing microwave power the plasma grows from both ends along the tube, and a homogeneous plasma is formed. The high power microwave breakdown at atmospheric pressure leads to the formation of filamentary structures. These striations or string-like structures, also known as birkeland currents, are seen in many plasmas, like the plasma ball, the aurora,lightning,electric arcs, solar flares, and even supernova remnants.

Chinese Artist Exhibits Gorgeous ‘Sculptures’ Built By Bees

The Huffington Post  | By Mallika Rao

The Beijing-based artist and beekeeper Ren Ri is a focused man. His new three-part series — titled “Yuansu” in reference to the Chinese word for “element” — turns bees into his collaborators. Yuansu II features sculptures made by bees, of beeswax.

In an interview with CoolHunting, Ren explains the “special” properties that make beeswax such an interesting material:

“It’s unstable and can change shape with temperature. The structure of wax cells is orthohexagonal, which is an inconceivable feature in the natural world and it’s a peculiarity of honeybees.”

The sculptures are housed in transparent plastic polyhedrons. At the center of each is the queen bee, positioned thusly so as to enable the worker bees to build around her. They build symmetrically, due to the even planes of the polyhedrons. Every seventh day, Ren changes the gravity of the structure by rotating the box onto a different side. The act is in reference to the biblical concept of creation, but introduces a random element. Ren determines how to shift the box by the roll of a dice. Each time, there’s no telling how the bees will react to their new environment.

Chinese Artist Exhibits Gorgeous ‘Sculptures’ Built By Bees

The Huffington Post  | By Mallika Rao

The Beijing-based artist and beekeeper Ren Ri is a focused man. His new three-part series — titled “Yuansu” in reference to the Chinese word for “element” — turns bees into his collaborators. Yuansu II features sculptures made by bees, of beeswax.

In an interview with CoolHunting, Ren explains the “special” properties that make beeswax such an interesting material:

“It’s unstable and can change shape with temperature. The structure of wax cells is orthohexagonal, which is an inconceivable feature in the natural world and it’s a peculiarity of honeybees.”

The sculptures are housed in transparent plastic polyhedrons. At the center of each is the queen bee, positioned thusly so as to enable the worker bees to build around her. They build symmetrically, due to the even planes of the polyhedrons. Every seventh day, Ren changes the gravity of the structure by rotating the box onto a different side. The act is in reference to the biblical concept of creation, but introduces a random element. Ren determines how to shift the box by the roll of a dice. Each time, there’s no telling how the bees will react to their new environment.

ryanandmath:

How to read math. You’d be surprised how far this will get you.

EDIT: Some corrections

ryanandmath:

How to read math. You’d be surprised how far this will get you.

EDIT: Some corrections

crookedindifference:

Read the Apollo 11 Flight Plan in Its 353-Page Entirety

Exactly 45 years ago today, after months of preparation, Apollo 11 embarked on its now-legendary mission to the moon. But what exactly does it take to send three men into the great, vacuous unknown? See for yourself.

This 353-page document is the entire Apollo 11 flight plan in all its scientific glory. And if it gets a little confusing it’s because this is one of those rare cases where, yes, it actually is rocket science.

Thankfully, the National Archives does provide a small amount of decoding of the highly technical literature. This acronym key should be of some help:

CSM = Command Service Module

CMP = Command Module Pilot (Mike Collins)

LM = Lunar Module

CDR = Commander of the Mission (Neil Armstrong)

LMP = Lunar Module Pilot (Buzz Aldrin)

MCC-H = Mission Control Center-Houston.

LLM = Lunar Landing Mision

S/C = Spacecraft

And as an added bonus, NASA has also kindly made available the entire Apollo 11 onboard voice transcription. Yep—you get to be privy to every last word uttered between our three space heroes as they were making history happen.

crookedindifference:

Read the Apollo 11 Flight Plan in Its 353-Page Entirety

Exactly 45 years ago today, after months of preparation, Apollo 11 embarked on its now-legendary mission to the moon. But what exactly does it take to send three men into the great, vacuous unknown? See for yourself.

This 353-page document is the entire Apollo 11 flight plan in all its scientific glory. And if it gets a little confusing it’s because this is one of those rare cases where, yes, it actually is rocket science.

Thankfully, the National Archives does provide a small amount of decoding of the highly technical literature. This acronym key should be of some help:

CSM = Command Service Module

CMP = Command Module Pilot (Mike Collins)

LM = Lunar Module

CDR = Commander of the Mission (Neil Armstrong)

LMP = Lunar Module Pilot (Buzz Aldrin)

MCC-H = Mission Control Center-Houston.

LLM = Lunar Landing Mision

S/C = Spacecraft

And as an added bonus, NASA has also kindly made available the entire Apollo 11 onboard voice transcription. Yep—you get to be privy to every last word uttered between our three space heroes as they were making history happen.

Photo

Photo